It Ain’t Always Obvious…

The Instinctive Drowning Response, so named by Francesco A. Pia, Ph.D., is what people do to avoid actual or perceived suffocation in the water. And it does not look like most people expect it to. When someone is drowning there is very little splashing, and no waving or yelling or calling for help of any kind. To get an idea of just how quiet and undramatic drowning can be, consider this: It is the number two cause of accidental death in children age 15 and under (just behind vehicle accidents). 50 percent of them will do so within 20 metres of a parent or other adult. In 10 percent of these drownings, the adult will actually watch them do it, having no idea it is happening.

Drowning does not look like drowning. Dr. Pia, in an article he wrote for the Coast Guard’s On Scene magazine, described the instinctive drowning response like this:

  • Except in rare circumstances, drowning people are physiologically unable to call out for help. The respiratory system was designed for breathing. Speech is a secondary or overlaid function. Breathing must be fulfilled before speech occurs.
  • Drowning people’s mouths alternately sink below and reappear above the surface of the water. The mouths of drowning people are not above the surface of the water long enough for them to exhale, inhale and call out for help. When the drowning people’s mouths are above the surface, they exhale and inhale quickly as their mouths start to sink below the surface of the water.
  • Drowning people cannot wave for help. Nature instinctively forces them to extend their arms laterally and press down on the water’s surface. Pressing down on the surface of the water permits drowning people to leverage their bodies so they can lift their mouths out of the water to breathe.
  • Throughout the Instinctive Drowning Response, drowning people cannot voluntarily control their arm movements. Physiologically, drowning people who are struggling on the surface of the water cannot stop drowning and perform voluntary movements such as waving for help, moving toward a rescuer or reaching out for a piece of rescue equipment.
  • From beginning to end of the Instinctive Drowning Response, people’s bodies remain upright in the water, with no evidence of a supporting kick. Unless rescued by a trained lifeguard, these drowning people can only struggle on the surface of the water from 20 to 60 seconds before submersion occurs. (Source: On Scene magazine: Fall 2006 page 14)

This doesn’t mean that a person who is yelling for help and thrashing isn’t in real trouble — they are experiencing aquatic distress. Not always present before the instinctive drowning response, aquatic distress doesn’t last long, but unlike true drowning, these victims can still assist in their own rescue. They can grab lifelines, reach for throw rings, etc.

Look for these other signs of drowning when persons are in the water:

  • Head low in the water, mouth at water level
  • Head tilted back with mouth open
  • Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus
  • Eyes closed
  • Hair over forehead or eyes
  • Not using legs
  • Hyperventilating or gasping
  • Trying to swim in a particular direction but not making headway
  • Trying to roll over onto the back
  • Appears to be climbing an invisible ladder

So, if someone falls overboard and everything looks okay, don’t be too sure. Sometimes the most common indication that someone is drowning is that they don’t look as if they’re drowning. They may just look as if they are treading water and looking up at the deck. One way to be sure? Ask them, “Are you alright?” If they can answer at all, they probably are. If they return a blank stare, you may have less than 30 seconds to get to them. And parents — children playing in the water make noise. When they get quiet, you need to get to them and find out why.

 

Tactical Emergency Casualty Care – FCP…September 23, 2018 $110.00 CAD

medicWe will be holding another one-day First Care Provider course in Calgary on September 23, 2018. This is an excellent class for anyone who may come across a ballistic injury!

Tactical Emergency Casualty Care for First Care Providers (TECC-FCP) teaches prehospital providers how to respond to and care for patients in a civilian tactical environment. It is designed to decrease preventable deaths in a tactical situation.

Designed to augment, and not replace traditional first aid training, the goals of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care include the following:

  • To balance the threat, civilian scope of practice, differences in civilian population, medical equipment limits, and variable resources for response to atypical emergencies
  • To establish a framework that balances risk: benefit ratio for all civilian operational medical response
  • To provide guidance on medical management of preventable deaths at or near the point of wounding
  • To minimize provider risk while maximizing patient benefit

The applications of the TECC guidelines for civilian, Fire/EMS, and medical operations are far reaching, beyond just the traditional application in tactical and law enforcement operations. The emergency response to almost any civilian scenario involving high risk to responders, austere environments, or atypical hazards will benefit, including active shooter response, CBRNE and Terrorism related events, mass casualty, wilderness/austere scenarios, technical rescue events, and even traditional trauma response.

Our hands-on TECC (FCP) classroom course covers the following topics:

  • Ballistic trauma
  • Blast injuries
  • Hemorrhage control (including tourniquet and wound packing);
  • Chest seals;
  • Basic trauma airway control;
  • Shock recognition;
  • Hypothermia due to trauma;
  • Strategies for treating the wounded in threatening environments;
  • Techniques for dragging and moving victims to safety.

Class content and presentations are through our subsidiary, Personal Safety Systems. All TECC courses are conducted in accordance with the guidelines established by the Committee on Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC), and are recognized by C-TECC.img-20170813-wa0013

WARNING:

Course content includes graphic images, videos, and other subject materials concerning real world traumatic injuries.

To register, please complete our form