Bears and Sprays

fantasyUse a repellent, not an attractant!!

The big question, the one you don’t want to answer while face to fang with a grizzly, is: Does bear spray really work? The answer is a qualified “yes,” according to Stephen Herrero, Ph.D., author of Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance, and professor of environmental science, University of Calgary, Alberta.

Dr. Herrero, a noted researcher of bear behavior and attacks, along with Andrew Higgins, a university colleague, examined 66 field cases in which various brands of spray were used on black and grizzly bears that displayed behavior ranging from overly curious to actively aggressive toward humans. They concluded that, “while we don’t know how these encounters would have ended in the absence of spray, the use…appears to have prevented injury in most cases,” Dr. Herrero says.

Dr. Herrero, other bear experts, and even spray manufacturers agree on one important point, however. Bear spray is a last resort after all other appropriate precautions–storing food in bearproof containers, keeping a clean camp, making lots of noise while hiking, steering clear of areas with fresh bear scat or digs–have failed and you suddenly find yourself confronted by an aggressive or persistent bruin. As Dr. Herrero says, “This stuff isn’t brains in a can.”

bear_in_trash1Key Ingredient

If you’re wondering what gives bear spray its zip and zing, think jalapenos, habaneros, cayenne-peppers, in other words. The hot varieties contain a potent chemical called capsaicin (cap-say-sin), plus related but milder compounds known as capsaicinoids. Just 1 ounce of purified capsaicin diluted in 750 gallons of water would make your tongue burn.

Capsaicin finds its way into bear spray in a form called oleoresin of capsicum (OC), which is basically dried, ground-up peppers in a vegetable oil base. The food industry uses OC to add pizzazz to everything from salsa to canned chili. Bear-spray manufacturers combine this thick OC with a liquid called a carrier so it comes out of the can in a fog-like spray. The final ingredient is the propellant.

If a typical 225-gram can (7.9 ounces) says it contains 10 percent OC, that means that 10 percent of the total weight (about 23 grams) of the canister’s contents is OC. The remaining 90 percent is carrier and propellant. It’s worth noting, though, that the percentage of OC is not necessarily an indication of how much actual capsaicin (the hottest compound) is present, which is why the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now requires bear-spray manufacturers to list the percentage of “capsaicin and related capsaicinoids” as the active ingredient instead of just the percentage of OC.

Accidental Discharge

Stay Calm, and Don’t Claw Your Eyes Out

Any substance that’ll change an 800-pound bear’s mind will sure as heck do some harm to a comparatively puny human. If you accidentally spray yourself, here’s what to do:

  • Manufacturers and chemists recommend lots of soap and water, which usually isn’t available in the backcountry. Plus we’ve found that splashing on water spreads the capsaicin and burns more skin. If you’re near a creek, submerge whatever part is affected, and try to do so for 10 to 15 minutes.
  • If it’s in your eyes, flush with lots and lots of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Remove and discard contact lenses.
  • If you have vegetable or olive oil for cooking, rub some on the affected area to dissolve the capsaicin, then flush with water.
  • Don’t apply lotion or cream of any kind-even suntan lotion-to skin that’s been sprayed. You’ll only reactivate the capsaicin and intensify the burn.
  • Try to relax and wait it out. Hard to do, granted, but the burning will subside after an hour or so, and should vanish in several hours.

Expert Advice

How to Pick the Right Spray

When you walk into an outfitter shop armed with bear-spray questions, you take your chances. The guy behind the counter may truly know his stuff, or he could be the store’s wind-surfing expert. So it is best to consult some credible sources for information about choosing and using pepper spray:

  • The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee: Formed in 1983 to coordinate grizzly bear recovery in the United States, it includes representation from all federal land management agencies as well as members from state agencies in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and Washington, plus Canada.
  • Tom Smith, Ph.D.: A research wildlife ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Biological Science Center in Anchorage, Alaska, Dr. Smith has extensively tested and researched bear sprays.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The EPA oversees the registration of all bear sprays in the United States.

Based on recommendations from these three sources, look for a bear spray that:

  • Is labeled “for deterring attacks by bears.” Avoid products labeled for use against humans because they won’t have the firepower you need.
  • Contains 1 to 2 percent capsaicin and related capsaicinoids, with a net weight of at least 225 grams or 7.9 ounces-this is considered the minimum effective size.
  • Is derived from oleoresin of capsicum (OC), the only currently EPA-approved active ingredient.
  • Is registered with the EPA to ensure compliance with standards for active ingredients and performance.
  • Delivers a shotgun-cloud pattern. Less-expensive, less-effective sprays often come out in a stream, rather than in a cloud pattern that you don’t have to aim as exactly. All EPA-registered sprays have a cloud pattern.
  • Hits the target at a minimum range of 25 feet, which is the distance at which you should fire if a bear is charging.
  • Has at least 6 seconds total spray time, as indicated on the label. This allows you multiple short bursts of spray if needed for a single persistent bear, or for multiple encounters on a long trip.
  • Is well within its expiration date. Replace unused bear spray canisters every 3 years to ensure against depressurization or degradation of contents. Use the old canister for practice sessions at home. You can also weigh the can on a postal scale when new, then at the beginning of each season. Replace the can when the weight drops below 75 percent of its original weight.

When And How To Use It


As a deterrent, on an aggressive or attacking bear. In other words, don’t spray a bear that’s just checking you out. If it’s coming at you purposefully and/or quickly, use the spray.

Do not spray it on people, tents, packs, other equipment, or the surrounding area as a repellent. Dr. Smith’s tests have shown that OC-based spray residue attracts bears “like catnip.” Likewise, don’t test-fire any spray in or near camp. We particularly like a comment we saw on one manufacturer’s Web site: “We think the people who spray their kids with this as a repellent are direct descendants of the woman who bathed her poodle, then tried to dry it in her microwave.”


Make sure it’s accessible at all times. After our field-test experiences, we recommend a hip holster over a chest model, to avoid the risk of spray blowing back in your face.

bear being sprayed

  • Remove the safety clip.
  • Aim slightly down and directly in front of the approaching bear. Try to adjust for any crosswind.
  • Spray a brief shot when the bear is about 50 feet away so it’ll walk into the spray.
  • If the bear continues to approach, spray again, this time aiming for the eyes and nose.
  • Once the animal has retreated or is busy cleaning itself, leave quickly, but don’t run.

Preventive Measures

  • Stay off trails at night, in early morning, and in evening, when bears are actively feeding.
  • Clap, sing, talk loudly, or make noise by clanging cups or pots, especially if you see fresh bear sign or are hiking on a trail with blind curves, near sound-covering streams, or in terrain where your vision is limited.
  • Stay away from, or be especially alert when near, prime bear habitat like berry patches, avalanche chutes, and streams with fish.
  • If you smell something dead or spot carrion birds like ravens and buzzards overhead, take another route. You may be about to encounter a carcass, or a bear guarding it.
  • Set up your kitchen at least 100 yards downwind of your tent.
  • Hang all food in sealed bags or use bearproof canisters.
  • Store all food at least 100 yards from your tent and kitchen. If you’re in an area of heavy bear activity, it’s a good idea to hang the clothes you cooked in, as well.BeerDrinkingBear-01

Do not sleep in the clothes you wore when cooking.

Planning Your Trip

Often, recreationalists venture into the backcountry with little or no pre-planning. This occasionally results in catastrophe as they do little to prepare for the severe conditions that they may encounter.

With even a seemingly insignificant day-hike, the time to plan a trip is before leaving home. There are numerous things that should be done before starting out on the road.

Let Others Know

One important rule too often forgotten is to let others know exactly where you are going, with whom and when you can be expected back. I hate to nag, but search and rescue teams often spend hours driving around on back roads looking for a subject’s vehicle before they know where to enter the field to begin a search.

By letting someone know EXACTLY where you intend to go, when you expect to return and where your vehicle will be parked, you can eliminate the possibility of searchers having no idea of where to look. Should your plans change in route to your destination, stop and notify that person of your new itinerary. In addition, if you leave pertinent information on the dash of your car (e.g. name and phone number of your contact in town, location of travel/campsite and so on) search teams will have a very timely idea of your plans. Otherwise, search teams can be of little assistance when all that is known is that you “went camping somewhere in the Sundance Range.”

Whenever possible, utilize trailhead and summit check-in logs. These generally exist at most popular trailheads and atop many popular mountain summits.

Plan Your Route

Before Sir Edmund Hillary became the first man to stand atop Mt. Everest in 1953 (at 29,035 ft., the highest mountain in the world), many climbers had tried using various routes. A few of these mountaineers died trying. To this day, the South Col route on Mt. Everest remains the prominent Everest route.

Careful planning based on earlier attempts combined with detailed study of the risks of various routes led the 1953 British Everest Expedition to choose the now famous South Col route. It is not by accident that this route is so popular. Repeatedly, it has been proven to be the safest and easiest route.

Likewise, popular routes to the summits of mountains in North America are based on similar exhausting study by early mountaineers. Detailed in mountaineering books, as well as on many topographical and trail maps, these trails should be closely followed. Any deviation by inexperienced mountaineers can lead to disaster. In addition, backcountry users should stay on maintained trails as part of the Leave No Trace ethic of mountaineering.

Backcountry preparedness begins with prior knowledge of the anticipated route…types of terrain, technical skills needed, length of the route and amount of available shelter along the trail.

Know Your Physical Limitations

Disorientation results when the body is cold, oxygen deprived and/or fatigued. Know the physical limitations of each member of your team, especially if any member has a predisposing medical condition that could possibly require immediate care while on the trip (e.g. diabetics and persons with heart conditions).

Among your considerations should be the following:

Altitude acclimatization of each party member

A mountain resident at 12,000 feet is accustomed to 68% of the oxygen to which someone living at sea level is accustomed. Since air density decreases as altitude increases, more work is required to breathe at higher elevations. The intercostal muscles surrounding the lungs must work harder when the air density is lower. High-elevation residents have already strengthened these muscles and changed their blood chemistry to accommodate inspiring less oxygen. Mountaineers who live at sea level would therefore experience greater difficulty catching their breath when climbing to 14,000 feet than would the resident of the mountains, even if the flatlander is in better physical condition. Additional problems can develop as well, including Acute Mountain Sickness, Pulmonary Edema and Cerebral Edema. These complications are serious and can result in coma and death, and at elevations far lower than 14,000 feet.

Based on these facts, plan the difficulty of your route based on the knowledge that each team member may be accustomed to a different concentration of oxygen.

Know your team members’ comfort level near steep ridges

Although most backcountry trails are not technically difficult, some may involve hiking moderately close to a steep ridge with an imposing severe drop. This could create anxiety on the part of recreationalists who are not accustomed to such relatively unprotected slopes, even if the trail is five feet wide and perfectly flat.

In addition, the lack of a flat horizon on high peaks may make balance more difficult for those who are not accustomed to such terrain. This can lead to increased anxiety, panic and perhaps nausea on the part of inexperienced backcountry users. Imagine yourself standing on a five-foot wide ledge at the top of a 30-story building. Scary, isn’t it, even if the ledge is five feet wide?

The team’s most experienced backcountry user should stop and ask each of the team members whether or not they feel comfortable with the exposure when encountering severe pitches.  If some team members do not feel comfortable they must be given the option of turning back, or risk cleaning out the gene pool.

If team members do turn back, they should always travel in groups of two or more and the team leader must be certain that they are equipped with a map, compass and survival equipment. This reduces the risk of a lone hiker becoming disoriented and lost.

Maintain a chemical-free body

Not surprisingly, many rescues are performed each year on victims who have altered their body chemistry with alcohol and/or other drugs. If these substances are an active part of your life, remain in the safety of less severe terrain.

If you think going UP was hard…

Many inexperienced backcountry users become intrigued by small, seemingly simple pitches of technical rock and decide to challenge themselves by attempting to climb them without technical equipment. After all, if the first ten feet was THAT easy…

The startling surprise comes when they reach a point at which they cannot continue up and realize that descending the same pitch will be much more difficult than the ascent they just completed. The reason is simple. In ascending a pitch, the foot placements are easily visible somewhere between the feet and waist level and one never HAS to look down. In descending, the foot placements are now below the feet, perhaps 6-8 feet below the eyes and are not easily discernable. What makes this realization more alarming is that in order to find those footholds, the climber must look down more often. At this point the inexperienced technical climber, without any fall protection (such as ropes, anchors, and a belayer) is faced with the grim reality that a fall would be very dangerous. Adrenaline now overtakes the body and the leg and arm muscles that are holding the person in place quickly become fatigued as a result.

The moral, based on many seemingly unnecessary rescue missions, is this: Unless you’re carrying technical rock hardware and are experienced at technical pitches, stay off them and enjoy a safe hike. After all, a helicopter ride back to the nearest hospital is not worth the long and painful several hours wait (with broken bones or ruptured internal organs) for the rescue team and helicopter to arrive. Rescue helicopters are a lousy way to see the backcountry.Sparrowhawk Chopper

Not so surprisingly, a large percentage of rock climbing accidents occur with novice climbers.

Think “Before”

“Prepare” is defined in Webster’s Dictionary as “to make ready beforehand for some purpose, use or activity.” The inclusion of the word “before” in this definition is not by accident.

One way of assuring the success of your trip is to remember the “Rule of Befores”. Listen to a weather forecast before planning a trip. Tell people where you are going and when you’ll be back before you leave. While on the trail, drink before you get thirsty, eat before you get hungry. Add a layer of clothes before you get cold; remove a layer of clothes before you get hot. Make camp before you need camp. Find protection from foul weather before it arrives.  By doing these things, you will find yourself always thinking ahead. Think ahead at all times and you will rarely find yourself unprepared.

Test your equipment under controlled conditions prior to actual use

Do not put yourself in a position in which you discover that your equipment is inadequate while in the backcountry. If, for example, you plan to use a three-season sleeping bag in conditions of extreme cold, test the sleeping bag in a safe place, such as your own back yard, in similar weather conditions. This way, if the sleeping bag does not perform as expected, a warm bed offers a safe alternative. Consider this example with all backcountry equipment to be used.

Protect against Giardia

Giardia is a microscopic parasite that exists in water sources nearly everywhere on the planet. It cannot be seen with the naked eye and once ingested, its symptoms read like a “Who’s Who” of digestive system ailments: abdominal cramps, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, flatulence, vomiting, weakness and fever. One’s digestive system is never quite the same after a battle with giardia.

The disease begins with fecally contaminated surface water and the parasite thrives in cool, clear water. Elk, deer, beaver, muskrat, dogs and humans are all known carriers, which helps to explain why it has overtaken literally every water supply on Earth. Once ingested, the microscopic cysts multiply in the intestines at a phenomenal rate. A victim of giardiasis may excrete billions of the tiny parasites in a single day.

Carriers of the disease may be “asymptomatic;” that is, they show no signs of the disease themselves, but can spread it to less tolerant individuals. Since humans are known carriers, human waste should ALWAYS be disposed away from water sources to reduce possible future contamination of those water supplies.

To reduce the risk of infection, all water to be consumed should be boiled for several minutes (increasing boiling time at altitudes above 10,000 feet). If boiling is impractical, chemical treatments or portable filter systems (available at backcountry outfitters) should be used. The giardia parasite is so small, it is possible to contract the disease from a toothbrush dipped in a stream or from bottle cap threads. For that reason, you must be meticulous with your water treatment.

Though giardiasis may not present itself for five to seven weeks after ingestion of the parasite, it has been known to occur much more quickly. The only treatment in the field for a victim showing signs and symptoms of giardiasis is to quickly transport the individual to a medical facility. Because of diarrhea and vomiting, hypovolemia (reduced level of body fluids) can be a serious complication, so periodic intake of treated fluids should be encouraged. Sometimes victims of giardiasis may be so incapacitated that they are unable to walk. In this case, a rescue team should be sought to assist in evacuation.

Keep the Team Together at All Times

In this article, every group of backcountry travelers is referred to as a “team”. The word “team” implies a group of people working together for the benefit of the whole. If you consider yourself part of a team and constantly stay aware of the other team members throughout your trip, especially in cases of extreme weather, accidents can be easily avoided.

As with any team, a “team leader” should be chosen for all backcountry trips. Your team leader must be perceptive of the individual abilities and experience of each team member. This person must know that the only real goal for a backcountry adventure is the safe return of each party member. The team leader need not be the most skilled member, but rather the most trusted and most respected backcountry user.

Of the hundreds of searches performed by Search and Rescue teams each year, most are conducted for subjects who have been separated from a group of people and usually from shelter and survival equipment. The rule is simple: do not wander away from the team.

If team members must separate from the rest of the team, they should always do so in groups of two or more. In addition, they should carry and be skilled in the use of a map and compass. This will reduce the risk of any individual becoming lost. Also, make certain to mark on the map the precise location of the team.

“If You Don’t Like the Weather, Wait Ten Minutes.”

“Today’s forecast calls for clear skies in the morning. Highs will be in the mid- to upper-seventies. Increasing clouds with localized thunderstorms by late afternoon in the mountains.” God only knows how many hundreds of times we hear this mountain weather forecast in the summer. Day after day it’s the same story. And day after day some percentage of the mountain peaks and valleys experience severe thunderstorms in the late afternoon.

Backcountry weather in specific valleys or ranges is relatively difficult to predict from distant weather service offices using even the most modern instruments. It is generally easier for the backcountry traveler to predict the weather from the particular valley.

When hiking in the mountains constantly watch the sky and take note of the size, height, form and movement of clouds. Changes in these characteristics are meaningful.  With relative ease one can predict local storms in the mountains through basic observations. This is important so that your team can be quickly guided off the mountain to a place of safety.