Bears and Sprays

fantasyUse a repellent, not an attractant!!

The big question, the one you don’t want to answer while face to fang with a grizzly, is: Does bear spray really work? The answer is a qualified “yes,” according to Stephen Herrero, Ph.D., author of Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance, and professor of environmental science, University of Calgary, Alberta.

Dr. Herrero, a noted researcher of bear behavior and attacks, along with Andrew Higgins, a university colleague, examined 66 field cases in which various brands of spray were used on black and grizzly bears that displayed behavior ranging from overly curious to actively aggressive toward humans. They concluded that, “while we don’t know how these encounters would have ended in the absence of spray, the use…appears to have prevented injury in most cases,” Dr. Herrero says.

Dr. Herrero, other bear experts, and even spray manufacturers agree on one important point, however. Bear spray is a last resort after all other appropriate precautions–storing food in bearproof containers, keeping a clean camp, making lots of noise while hiking, steering clear of areas with fresh bear scat or digs–have failed and you suddenly find yourself confronted by an aggressive or persistent bruin. As Dr. Herrero says, “This stuff isn’t brains in a can.”

bear_in_trash1Key Ingredient

If you’re wondering what gives bear spray its zip and zing, think jalapenos, habaneros, cayenne-peppers, in other words. The hot varieties contain a potent chemical called capsaicin (cap-say-sin), plus related but milder compounds known as capsaicinoids. Just 1 ounce of purified capsaicin diluted in 750 gallons of water would make your tongue burn.

Capsaicin finds its way into bear spray in a form called oleoresin of capsicum (OC), which is basically dried, ground-up peppers in a vegetable oil base. The food industry uses OC to add pizzazz to everything from salsa to canned chili. Bear-spray manufacturers combine this thick OC with a liquid called a carrier so it comes out of the can in a fog-like spray. The final ingredient is the propellant.

If a typical 225-gram can (7.9 ounces) says it contains 10 percent OC, that means that 10 percent of the total weight (about 23 grams) of the canister’s contents is OC. The remaining 90 percent is carrier and propellant. It’s worth noting, though, that the percentage of OC is not necessarily an indication of how much actual capsaicin (the hottest compound) is present, which is why the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now requires bear-spray manufacturers to list the percentage of “capsaicin and related capsaicinoids” as the active ingredient instead of just the percentage of OC.

Accidental Discharge

Stay Calm, and Don’t Claw Your Eyes Out

Any substance that’ll change an 800-pound bear’s mind will sure as heck do some harm to a comparatively puny human. If you accidentally spray yourself, here’s what to do:

  • Manufacturers and chemists recommend lots of soap and water, which usually isn’t available in the backcountry. Plus we’ve found that splashing on water spreads the capsaicin and burns more skin. If you’re near a creek, submerge whatever part is affected, and try to do so for 10 to 15 minutes.
  • If it’s in your eyes, flush with lots and lots of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Remove and discard contact lenses.
  • If you have vegetable or olive oil for cooking, rub some on the affected area to dissolve the capsaicin, then flush with water.
  • Don’t apply lotion or cream of any kind-even suntan lotion-to skin that’s been sprayed. You’ll only reactivate the capsaicin and intensify the burn.
  • Try to relax and wait it out. Hard to do, granted, but the burning will subside after an hour or so, and should vanish in several hours.

Expert Advice

How to Pick the Right Spray

When you walk into an outfitter shop armed with bear-spray questions, you take your chances. The guy behind the counter may truly know his stuff, or he could be the store’s wind-surfing expert. So it is best to consult some credible sources for information about choosing and using pepper spray:

  • The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee: Formed in 1983 to coordinate grizzly bear recovery in the United States, it includes representation from all federal land management agencies as well as members from state agencies in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and Washington, plus Canada.
  • Tom Smith, Ph.D.: A research wildlife ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Biological Science Center in Anchorage, Alaska, Dr. Smith has extensively tested and researched bear sprays.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The EPA oversees the registration of all bear sprays in the United States.

Based on recommendations from these three sources, look for a bear spray that:

  • Is labeled “for deterring attacks by bears.” Avoid products labeled for use against humans because they won’t have the firepower you need.
  • Contains 1 to 2 percent capsaicin and related capsaicinoids, with a net weight of at least 225 grams or 7.9 ounces-this is considered the minimum effective size.
  • Is derived from oleoresin of capsicum (OC), the only currently EPA-approved active ingredient.
  • Is registered with the EPA to ensure compliance with standards for active ingredients and performance.
  • Delivers a shotgun-cloud pattern. Less-expensive, less-effective sprays often come out in a stream, rather than in a cloud pattern that you don’t have to aim as exactly. All EPA-registered sprays have a cloud pattern.
  • Hits the target at a minimum range of 25 feet, which is the distance at which you should fire if a bear is charging.
  • Has at least 6 seconds total spray time, as indicated on the label. This allows you multiple short bursts of spray if needed for a single persistent bear, or for multiple encounters on a long trip.
  • Is well within its expiration date. Replace unused bear spray canisters every 3 years to ensure against depressurization or degradation of contents. Use the old canister for practice sessions at home. You can also weigh the can on a postal scale when new, then at the beginning of each season. Replace the can when the weight drops below 75 percent of its original weight.

When And How To Use It


As a deterrent, on an aggressive or attacking bear. In other words, don’t spray a bear that’s just checking you out. If it’s coming at you purposefully and/or quickly, use the spray.

Do not spray it on people, tents, packs, other equipment, or the surrounding area as a repellent. Dr. Smith’s tests have shown that OC-based spray residue attracts bears “like catnip.” Likewise, don’t test-fire any spray in or near camp. We particularly like a comment we saw on one manufacturer’s Web site: “We think the people who spray their kids with this as a repellent are direct descendants of the woman who bathed her poodle, then tried to dry it in her microwave.”


Make sure it’s accessible at all times. After our field-test experiences, we recommend a hip holster over a chest model, to avoid the risk of spray blowing back in your face.

bear being sprayed

  • Remove the safety clip.
  • Aim slightly down and directly in front of the approaching bear. Try to adjust for any crosswind.
  • Spray a brief shot when the bear is about 50 feet away so it’ll walk into the spray.
  • If the bear continues to approach, spray again, this time aiming for the eyes and nose.
  • Once the animal has retreated or is busy cleaning itself, leave quickly, but don’t run.

Preventive Measures

  • Stay off trails at night, in early morning, and in evening, when bears are actively feeding.
  • Clap, sing, talk loudly, or make noise by clanging cups or pots, especially if you see fresh bear sign or are hiking on a trail with blind curves, near sound-covering streams, or in terrain where your vision is limited.
  • Stay away from, or be especially alert when near, prime bear habitat like berry patches, avalanche chutes, and streams with fish.
  • If you smell something dead or spot carrion birds like ravens and buzzards overhead, take another route. You may be about to encounter a carcass, or a bear guarding it.
  • Set up your kitchen at least 100 yards downwind of your tent.
  • Hang all food in sealed bags or use bearproof canisters.
  • Store all food at least 100 yards from your tent and kitchen. If you’re in an area of heavy bear activity, it’s a good idea to hang the clothes you cooked in, as well.BeerDrinkingBear-01

Do not sleep in the clothes you wore when cooking.

Wilderness Survival Courses…Why Bother?

Safe Wilderness Travel

wilderness oneAnyone could find themselves in an emergency situation where even the most basic survival knowledge could mean the difference between life and death. A basic understanding of survival techniques should enable anyone to travel through the wilderness with an increased level of confidence and enjoyment.

Be Prepared

The best time to practice any wilderness survival skills – starting a fire, shelter building or whatever – is before you need them.

Safety Is Your Responsibility

When going into the wilderness it is your responsibility to have the proper knowledge, experience, and equipment to travel safely. An understanding of the basic concepts of how to survive in the wilderness is important if you ever find yourself in an emergency situation in the wilderness.

The Will to Survive

State of mind is an important factor in survival. Maintain a strong will to survive! From time to time, we hear or read about remarkable wilderness survival stories. A common denominator for most of the survivors in these stories is a strong will to survive.

Basic Needs

In a wilderness survival situation you will be confronted with many problems that you need to overcome. There are four basic needs for survival in the wilderness.


Maintaining an ideal body temperature is crucial. Your body operates within a narrow temperature range. In most survival situations, the challenge is to keep you warm, especially at nights.


The human body is 75 per cent water, and you need a constant supply of water to function. The average person can survive for three days without water, but it is best not to wait until you run out of water before you look for more.


As humans we need a certain amount of sleep to remain rational. Without sleep, your mind may hallucinate, making you unable to make conscious decisions to better your situation.


An average adult can survive for weeks without food; therefore, food is rarely a first priority. However, in many survival situations your body burns more calories than normal, requiring you to need extra energy. In addition, food is important for your mental state.

The Basic Rules

Sometimes, when faced with a survival situation, stress can impact the mind and affect decision making. Survival depends on your ability to withstand stress and to take appropriate actions.

Just think STOP:

Sit down and stay put until the fear, anger, and or frustration has gone from the system.

Think through your situation. What do you have that can help you in this situation? Your mind is your greatest survival tool!

Observe your surroundings. Where should you stay? If you told someone where you were going, people may be searching for you. Is there an open area where the searchers would have a better chance of seeing you?

Plan your action. In most cases, the priority should be:

  • Find or make a shelter against the weather.
  • Build a fire for heat.
  • Signal to attract attention.
  • Find water.

The Next Step

If after several days of waiting no one comes to your rescue, you may decide that no one is looking for you. In this case, you must attempt to find your own way to safety. Also, of course, this is what you have to do if you know from the beginning that no one will be looking for you.

7 Basic Wilderness Survival Skills

To learn how to survive in the wilderness, it is necessary to develop certain skills. There are at least 7 basic wilderness skills:

  • Building a shelter.
  • Making a fire.
  • Finding water.
  • Finding food in the wild.
  • Signalling for help.
  • Navigation
  • Basic wilderness first aid.

Wilderness Survival Training

Practice these skills, because just reading is not enough. When going into the wilderness, it is your responsibility to have the proper knowledge and skills. RAEMS offers an Introduction to Wilderness Survival, and a Wilderness Survival Techniques class for interested groups of six or more, and also will be scheduling general public sessions throughout the year.

CCC0008Please feel free to contact us for further information.