The RAEMS Hiker Water Purification Bottle

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Each bottle contains 8 grams of USP Resublimated Iodine Crystals.  It may be reused to treat up to 5000 quarts. Once the crystals are dissolved, the bottle is finished. This may take years!

Each fill of the bottle will give you a saturated solution of 8 ppm (parts per million). This solution strength will disinfect water according to the following table:

Temperature

41F / 5 C

59F / 15C

86F / 30C

Time in minutes

60

30

15

Iodine is light sensitive and must always be stored in a dark bottle. It works best if the water is over 68° F (21° C). Iodine has been shown to be more effective than chlorine-based treatments in inactivating Giardia cysts. It is important to note that you are using the iodine solution to treat the water, not the iodine crystals. The concentration of iodine in a crystal is poisonous and can burn tissue or eyes.  Fill the bottle with some of the water to be treated, cap it, shake, and let it sit for a few minutes.  Decant the solution ( not the crystals) into a one quart ( 1 litre) container holding water to be treated. Let the treated water stand for 30 minutes before drinking. In order to destroy Giardia cysts, the drinking water must be at least 68° F (20° C). Be aware that some people are allergic to iodine and cannot use it as a form of water purification. Persons with thyroid problems or on lithum, women over fifty, and pregnant women should consult their physician prior to using iodine for purification. Also, some people who are allergic to shellfish are also allergic to iodine. If someone cannot use iodine, use either a chlorine-based product or a non-iodine-based filter, such as the PUR Hiker Microfilter, MSR WaterWorks, or the Katadyn Water Filter.

Always ensure the bottle is tightly capped, as iodine crystals sublime into the air quite quickly, and may stain surrounding items. They will also cause corroding of most metals. Leaving water in the bottle is okay, and will not create a superstrong solution.

If you find the slight iodine taste of the treated water disagreeable, add a little ascorbic acid after treating. A vitamin C tablet or a little fruit drink powder with vitamin C will completely remove the iodine taste, converting it into harmless I iodide.

These items are for water purification use only, and are being offered for such purpose solely.

 

You may order 8 gram USP bottles here

 

An Excerpt from an Article on Giardiasis:

Giardiasis

Andre Pennardt, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, FAWM, Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia; Assistant Professor of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Consulting Staff, Departments of Emergency Medicine, Aviation Medicine and Dive Medicine, Womack Army Medical Center

Updated: Apr 28, 2009

Introduction

Background

Giardiasis is a major diarrheal disease found throughout the world. The flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia, its causative agent, is the most commonly identified intestinal parasite in the United States and the most common protozoal intestinal parasite isolated worldwide.

Giardiasis usually represents a zoonosis with cross-infectivity between animals and humans. Giardia have been isolated from the stools of beavers, dogs, cats, rodents, sheep, and cattle.

Pathophysiology

Giardiasis is caused by ingestion of Giardia cysts, which retain viability in cold water for as long as 2-3 months. The infective dose is low in humans; 10-25 cysts are capable of causing clinical disease in 8 of 25 subjects. Ingestion of more than 25 cysts results in a 100% infection rate. After ingestion of cysts, excystation, trophozoite multiplication, and colonization of the upper small bowel occur. 

The exact pathophysiology of giardiasis is unclear. Postulated mechanisms include damage to the endothelial brush border, enterotoxins, immunologic reactions, and altered gut motility and fluid hypersecretion via increased adenylate cyclase activity. Adhesion of trophozoites to the epithelium has been demonstrated to cause increased epithelial permeability. Giardia- induced loss of intestinal brush border surface area, villus flattening, inhibition of disaccharidase activities, and eventual overgrowth of enteric bacterial flora appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of giardiasis but have yet to be causatively linked to the disease's clinical manifestations.

Most infections result from fecal-oral transmission or ingestion of contaminated water. Contaminated food is a less common etiology. Person-to-person spread is common, with 25% of family members with infected children themselves becoming infected.

Most infections are asymptomatic, and the attack rate for symptomatic infection in the natural setting varies from 5-70%. Giardia is found in healthy people in endemic areas and in asymptomatic carrier states with high numbers of cysts excreted in stools common.

Predisposing factors to symptomatic infection include hypochlorhydria, various immune system deficiencies, blood group A, and malnutrition. The incubation period averages 1-2 weeks, with a mean of 9 days. The average duration of symptoms in all ages ranges from 3-10 weeks.

Frequency

United States

Giardiasis is found throughout the United States; however, the incidence appears greatest in northern states. Carrier rates as high as 30-60% have been documented among children in day care centers, institutions, and on Native American reservations. Endemic infection occurs most commonly from July through October among children younger than 5 years and adults aged 25-39 years. Between 1964 and 1984, 90 outbreaks (24,000 cases) of giardiasis in the United States were linked epidemiologically to water. These outbreaks typically occurred in small water systems using untreated or inadequately treated surface water.

Most water-borne outbreaks in the United States have occurred in western mountain regions (Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Cascades) where giardiasis must be considered endemic. However, since water-borne giardiasis outbreaks have been reported in every region in the United States, the diagnosis must be considered anywhere in the country. Areas and populations with poor hygiene and close physical contact tend to have higher rates of infection. Venereal transmission has been reported among homosexuals through direct fecal-oral contamination.

International

Giardiasis is prevalent throughout the world. Giardia is one of the first enteric pathogens to infect infants in the developing world, with peak prevalence rates of 15-20% in children younger than 10 years.

A recent study demonstrated a Giardia infection rate of 19.6 per 100,000 population per year in Canada.[1 ]While the yearly incidence of the disease was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed, with a peak in late summer to early fall, which correlates with the pattern found in the United States.[1 ]

Giardiasis accounts for a relatively small percentage of traveler's diarrhea. It is more likely to be found as the cause of diarrhea that occurs or persists after returning home from travel to developing regions of the world due to its relatively long incubation period and persistent symptoms. Giardia has been identified as the causative agent in a large percentage of cases among travelers in the region of St. Petersburg, Russia, where tap water is the primary source.

Mortality/Morbidity

Giardiasis is not associated with mortality except in cases of extreme dehydration and malnourishment, primarily in infants. Morbidity is moderate and involves primarily GI symptoms.

Race

Giardiasis does not have any race predilection. Native American populations residing on reservations can have high carrier rates.

Sex

Males have been noted to be at higher risk for infection than females. A Canadian population study demonstrated infection rates of 21.2 per 100,000 per year versus 17.9 per 100,000 per year for males and females, respectively, resulting in a relative risk of 1.19.[1 ]

Age

Giardiasis occurs in all ages but is most common in early childhood, possibly through exposure at daycare centers.

Clinical

History

A broad spectrum of clinical syndromes may occur. The vast majority of symptoms are GI in nature.

  • Gastrointestinal
    • A small number of persons develop abrupt onset of explosive, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, foul flatus, vomiting, fever, and malaise; these symptoms last 3-4 days before transition into the more common subacute syndrome.
    • Most patients experience a more insidious onset of symptoms, which are recurrent or resistant.
    • Stools become malodorous, mushy, and greasy. Watery diarrhea may alternate with soft stools or even constipation. Stools do not contain blood or pus because dysenteric symptoms are not a feature of giardiasis.
    • Upper GI symptoms, often exacerbated by eating, accompany stool changes or may be present in the absence of soft stools. These include upper and midabdominal cramping, nausea, early satiety, bloating, sulfurous belching, substernal burning, and acid indigestion.
  • Constitutional symptoms
    • Anorexia, fatigue, malaise, and weight loss are common.
    • Weight loss occurs in more than 50% of patients and averages 10 pounds per person.
    • Chronic illness may occur with adults presenting with long-standing malabsorption syndrome and children with failure to thrive.
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Miscellaneous: Unusual presentations include allergic manifestations such as urticaria, erythema multiforme, bronchospasm, reactive arthritis, and biliary tract disease.

Physical

  • Physical examination generally is unremarkable.
  • Abdominal examination may reveal nonspecific tenderness without evidence of peritoneal irritation.
  • Rectal examination should reveal heme-negative stools.
  • In severe cases, evidence of dehydration or wasting may be present.

Causes

  • Giardiasis is caused by the ingestion of infective cysts.
  • Person-to-person transmission, often associated with poor hygiene and sanitation, is a primary means of infection.
  • Diaper changing and inadequate hand washing are risk factors for transmission from infected children.
  • Children attending day care centers, as well as day care workers, have a higher risk of infection secondary to fecal-oral transmission.
  • Water-borne transmission is responsible for a significant number of epidemics in the United States, generally following ingestion of unfiltered surface water. Giardia was implicated in 90 waterborne outbreaks in the United States from 1964-1984, affecting 23,500 persons.
  • Venereal transmission occurs through fecal-oral contamination.
  • Food-borne epidemics have been reported, most commonly secondary to contamination by infected food-handlers.
  • Pets frequently harbor Giardia in their GI tracts, but they are not thought to be a significant cause of outbreaks in humans.

Differential Diagnoses

Amebiasis

Gastroenteritis

Celiac Sprue

Gastroenteritis, Bacterial

Crohn Disease

Gastroenteritis, Viral

Cryptosporidiosis

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Diarrhea

Lactose Intolerance

Food Poisoning

Sprue, Tropical

 

 

 

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