Each bottle contains 8 grams of USP Resublimated Iodine
Crystals. It may be reused to treat up to 5000 quarts. Once the crystals are
dissolved, the bottle is finished. This may take years!
Each fill of the bottle will give you a saturated
solution of 8 ppm (parts per million). This solution strength will disinfect
water according to the following table:
41F / 5 C
59F / 15C
86F / 30C
Time in minutes
Iodine is light sensitive and must
always be stored in a dark bottle. It works best if the water is over 68° F (21°
C). Iodine has been shown to be more effective than chlorine-based treatments in
inactivating Giardia cysts. It is important to note that you are
using the iodine solution to treat the water, not the iodine crystals.
The concentration of iodine in a crystal is poisonous and can burn tissue or
eyes. Fill the bottle with some of the water to be treated, cap
it, shake, and let it sit for a few minutes. Decant the solution ( not the
crystals) into a one quart ( 1 litre) container holding water to be treated. Let
the treated water stand for 30 minutes before drinking. In order to destroy
Giardia cysts, the drinking water must be at least 68° F (20° C). Be
aware that some people are allergic to iodine and cannot use it as a form of
water purification. Persons with thyroid problems or on lithum, women over
fifty, and pregnant women should consult their physician prior to using iodine
for purification. Also, some people who are allergic to shellfish are also
allergic to iodine. If someone cannot use iodine, use either a chlorine-based
product or a non-iodine-based filter, such as the PUR Hiker Microfilter, MSR
WaterWorks, or the Katadyn Water Filter.
Always ensure the bottle is tightly
capped, as iodine crystals sublime into the air quite quickly, and may stain
surrounding items. They will also cause corroding of most metals. Leaving water
in the bottle is okay, and will not create a superstrong solution.
If you find the slight iodine taste
of the treated water disagreeable, add a little ascorbic acid after treating. A
vitamin C tablet or a little fruit drink powder with vitamin C will completely
remove the iodine taste, converting it into harmless I iodide.
are for water purification use only, and are being offered for such purpose
may order 8 gram USP bottles here
Article on Giardiasis:
Andre Pennardt, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, FAWM,
Clinical Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia;
Assistant Professor of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services
University of the Health Sciences; Consulting Staff, Departments of Emergency
Medicine, Aviation Medicine and Dive Medicine, Womack Army Medical Center
Updated: Apr 28, 2009
Giardiasis is a major diarrheal disease found throughout the world. The
flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia, its causative agent, is the most
commonly identified intestinal parasite in the United States and the most common
protozoal intestinal parasite isolated worldwide.
Giardiasis usually represents a zoonosis with cross-infectivity between animals
and humans. Giardia have been isolated from the stools of beavers, dogs,
cats, rodents, sheep, and cattle.
Giardiasis is caused by ingestion of Giardia cysts, which retain
viability in cold water for as long as 2-3 months. The infective dose is low in
humans; 10-25 cysts are capable of causing clinical disease in 8 of 25 subjects.
Ingestion of more than 25 cysts results in a 100% infection rate. After
ingestion of cysts, excystation, trophozoite multiplication, and colonization of
the upper small bowel occur.
The exact pathophysiology of giardiasis is unclear. Postulated mechanisms
include damage to the endothelial brush border, enterotoxins, immunologic
reactions, and altered gut motility and fluid hypersecretion via increased
adenylate cyclase activity. Adhesion of trophozoites to the epithelium has been
demonstrated to cause increased epithelial permeability. Giardia- induced
loss of intestinal brush border surface area, villus flattening, inhibition of
disaccharidase activities, and eventual overgrowth of enteric bacterial flora
appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of giardiasis but have yet to be
causatively linked to the disease's clinical manifestations.
infections result from fecal-oral transmission or ingestion of contaminated
water. Contaminated food is a less common etiology. Person-to-person spread is
common, with 25% of family members with infected children themselves becoming
Most infections are asymptomatic, and the attack rate for symptomatic infection
in the natural setting varies from 5-70%. Giardia is found in healthy
people in endemic areas and in asymptomatic carrier states with high numbers of
cysts excreted in stools common.
Predisposing factors to symptomatic infection include hypochlorhydria, various
immune system deficiencies, blood group A, and malnutrition. The incubation
period averages 1-2 weeks, with a mean of 9 days. The average duration of
symptoms in all ages ranges from 3-10 weeks.
Giardiasis is found throughout the United States; however, the incidence appears
greatest in northern states. Carrier rates as high as 30-60% have been
documented among children in day care centers, institutions, and on Native
American reservations. Endemic infection occurs most commonly from July through
October among children younger than 5 years and adults aged 25-39 years. Between
1964 and 1984, 90 outbreaks (24,000 cases) of giardiasis in the United States
were linked epidemiologically to water. These outbreaks typically occurred in
small water systems using untreated or inadequately treated surface water.
Most water-borne outbreaks in the United States have occurred in western
mountain regions (Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Cascades) where giardiasis
must be considered endemic. However, since water-borne giardiasis outbreaks have
been reported in every region in the United States, the diagnosis must be
considered anywhere in the country. Areas and populations with poor hygiene and
close physical contact tend to have higher rates of infection. Venereal
transmission has been reported among homosexuals through direct fecal-oral
Giardiasis is prevalent throughout the world. Giardia is one of the first
enteric pathogens to infect infants in the developing world, with peak
prevalence rates of 15-20% in children younger than 10 years.
recent study demonstrated a Giardia infection rate of 19.6 per 100,000
population per year in Canada.[1 ]While the yearly incidence of the
disease was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed, with a peak
in late summer to early fall, which correlates with the pattern found in the
United States.[1 ]
Giardiasis accounts for a relatively small percentage of traveler's diarrhea. It
is more likely to be found as the cause of diarrhea that occurs or persists
after returning home from travel to developing regions of the world due to its
relatively long incubation period and persistent symptoms. Giardia has
been identified as the causative agent in a large percentage of cases among
travelers in the region of St. Petersburg, Russia, where tap water is the
Giardiasis is not associated with mortality except in cases of extreme
dehydration and malnourishment, primarily in infants. Morbidity is moderate and
involves primarily GI symptoms.
Giardiasis does not have any race predilection. Native American populations
residing on reservations can have high carrier rates.
have been noted to be at higher risk for infection than females. A Canadian
population study demonstrated infection rates of 21.2 per 100,000 per year
versus 17.9 per 100,000 per year for males and females, respectively, resulting
in a relative risk of 1.19.[1 ]
Giardiasis occurs in all ages but is most common in early childhood, possibly
through exposure at daycare centers.
broad spectrum of clinical syndromes may occur. The vast majority of symptoms
are GI in nature.
A small number of
persons develop abrupt onset of explosive, watery diarrhea, abdominal
cramps, foul flatus, vomiting, fever, and malaise; these symptoms last
3-4 days before transition into the more common subacute syndrome.
experience a more insidious onset of symptoms, which are recurrent or
malodorous, mushy, and greasy. Watery diarrhea may alternate with soft
stools or even constipation. Stools do not contain blood or pus because
dysenteric symptoms are not a feature of giardiasis.
Upper GI symptoms,
often exacerbated by eating, accompany stool changes or may be present
in the absence of soft stools. These include upper and midabdominal
cramping, nausea, early satiety, bloating, sulfurous belching,
substernal burning, and acid indigestion.
malaise, and weight loss are common.
Weight loss occurs
in more than 50% of patients and averages 10 pounds per person.
may occur with adults presenting with long-standing malabsorption
syndrome and children with failure to thrive.
Miscellaneous: Unusual presentations include allergic manifestations such as
urticaria, erythema multiforme, bronchospasm, reactive arthritis, and
biliary tract disease.
Physical examination generally is unremarkable.
Abdominal examination may reveal nonspecific tenderness without evidence of
Rectal examination should reveal heme-negative stools.
In severe cases, evidence of dehydration or wasting may be present.
Giardiasis is caused by the ingestion of infective cysts.
Person-to-person transmission, often associated with poor hygiene and
sanitation, is a primary means of infection.
Diaper changing and inadequate hand washing are risk factors for
transmission from infected children.
Children attending day care centers, as well as day care workers, have a
higher risk of infection secondary to fecal-oral transmission.
Water-borne transmission is responsible for a significant number of
epidemics in the United States, generally following ingestion of unfiltered
surface water. Giardia was implicated in 90 waterborne outbreaks in
the United States from 1964-1984, affecting 23,500 persons.
Venereal transmission occurs through fecal-oral contamination.
Food-borne epidemics have been reported, most commonly secondary to
contamination by infected food-handlers.
Pets frequently harbor Giardia in their GI tracts, but they are not
thought to be a significant cause of outbreaks in humans.